Medications such as ritalin can be quite effective in treating children with ADHD. However, side effects ( such as sleep problems, reduced appetitie and body twitches) are associated with the use of this type of medication.

Recent research suggests that, in the long term, behavioral therapy may be more effective for the treatment of ADHD than the use of psychotropic drugs.

Applied behavioral analysis is an intensive treatment for autism spectrum disorders that is based on the principles of operant conditioning . it is the most successful treatment for autism spectrum disorders

A biological treatment for ASD has not been identified, but oxytocin may prove helpful.

Using SSRIs such as Prozac to treat depressive disorders in adolescents is controversial, although effective for managing symptoms, SSRIs pose a risk of increasing suicidal thoughts, especially in high doses.

Research suggest that combining drugs and psychotherapy is most effective in treating depressive disorders in teens

Personality disorders are characterized by long-standing maladaptive ways of interactive with the world

Personality disorders are notoriously difficult to test

Efforts have been made to develop treatment programs for bordrline personallity disorder and antisocial personality disorder

Dialectical behavior therapy – which combines behavioral, cognitive and psychodynamic approaches to foster self-acceptance is the most effective method for treating borderline personality disorders

Behavioral and cognitive approaches are sometimes used to treat antisocial personality disorder. At his point, however, no treatment approach appears to be particularly effective for this disorder.

Cognitive and behavioral therapies- including cognitive restructuring, systematic desensitization, exposure, 2nd response prevention- are particularly effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

Drug treatments and CBT are both effective in treatment of OCD.

Among the treatment strategies for depression are antidepressants, cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation

Sex differences in the incidence of depression have led to the developmetn of specific guidelines for psychotherapy that remind therapists of gender-specific factors associated witht the experience, recognition, and treatment of psychological disorders.

Lithium is a mood stabilizer that is effective in treatment of bipolar disorder, but it has number of unpleasent side effects.

Atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine can also alleviate symptoms of bipolar disorder

Antipsychotic drugs are recommended for treatment of schizophrenia.

Psychotherapy is formal psychological teatment aimed at changing thought and behavior

Psychodynamic therapy provides people with insight

Humanistic therapies foster growth through self understanding

Behavior therapies change maladaptive behaviors

Cognitive therapies change maladaptive thought patterns

Group therapies vary widely, but generally they areinexpensive, develop participants social skills, and provide social support to clients

Family therapy focuses on family dynamics, adopting systems approach to psychotherapy

An individuals cultural background  can be an important determinant of whether she or he will seek therapy