- Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experiences.
- Nonassociative learning: Responding after repeated exposure to a single stimulus, or event.
- Types of learning:
- Non associative learning: learning about a stimulus, such as sight or sound, in the external world. Habituation: when our behavioral response to a stimulus decreases Sensitizataion: when our behavioral response to a stimulus increases.
- Associative Learning: learning the relationship between two pieces of information.
- observational: learning by watching how others behave.
- Behaviorism, founded by John B.Watson, focuses on observable aspects of learning.
- There are 3 types of learning, non-associative learning, associative learning and observational learning.
- Associative learning process include classical and operant conditioning.
- The nonassociative learning processes- habituation and sensitization- are simple forms of learning. Habituation results in decreased responding after repeated presentations of a stimulus. Sensitization results in increased responding after repeated presentations of a stimulus.
- Kandel’s work on the aplysia has shown that habituation and sensitization occur through alteration in neurotransmitter release.
Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)
- Classical Conditioning: a type of associative learning in which neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response.
- Unconditioned reflex: a response that does not have to be learned, such as reflex.
- Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that elicits response, such as a reflex without any prior learning.
- Conditioned stimulus:a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place.
- Conditioned response: a response to conditioned stimulus, a response that has been learned
- Acquisition: the gradual formation of an association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
- Extinction: a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus.
- Spontaneous recovery: A process in which a previously extinguished conditioned response reemerges after the presentation of a conditioned stimulus.
- Stimulus generalization: learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.
- Stimulus discrimination: a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the conditioned stimulus.
- Rescorla-Wagner Model: a cognitive model of classical conditioning; it holds the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is expected.
- Phobia: an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of situation.
- The neurotransmitter Dopamine is released in the brain after positive prediction errors. Dopamine is no longer released when non surprise is associated with the presentation of CS.
- Classical conditioning explains the development of phobias and contribute to drug addiction. Accordingly, techniques based on classical conditioning may be used to treat phobias and addictions.
Operant Conditioning/Instrumental Conditioning (B.F.Skinner)
- Law of effect: Thorndike’s general theory of learning; any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is likely to occur again, and any behavior that leads to “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again.
- Reinforcer: a stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
- Shaping: shaping, an operant conditioning technique, consists of reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior. This technique can be used to train animals to perform extraordinary behaviors.
- Positive reinforcement: the administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior being repeated.
- Negative reinforcement: the removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being repeated.
- Continuous reinforcement: a type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs.
- Partial reinforcement: a type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently.
- Fixed interval schedule: occurs when reinforcement is provided after a certain amount of time is passed.
- Variable interval schedule; occurs when reinforcement is provided after the passage of time, but the time is not regular.
- Fixed ratio schedule: occurs when reinforcement is provided after a certain number of responses have been made.
- Variable ratio schedule: occurs when reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable number of responses.
Partial reinforcement extinction effect: refers to the greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement.
the use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with new one.
Cognitive Map: a visual or spatial mental representation of an environment.
Latent Learning: learning that takes place in absence of reinforcement.
- Michael Gazzaniga, Todd Heatherton, Diane Halpern: Psychological Science, 5th edition, Norton Publicaitons, Page No: 221-263.